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IF one-half of what has been said and pubHshed in praise of 
this now celebrated spot and its products, by the press and 
by visitors generally, were collated in book-form, it would make a 
good-sized volume. 

Such is foreign to the purpose. But the writer may be par- 
doned for culling a few of the many compliments and compli- 
mentary descriptions so literally showered upon them. 

Curtailing that which is purely personal, he presents below a 
part of an article from "The Wine and Fruit Grower" (published 
in New York) of February, 1883. 

" Tokay Vineyard. — Tokay Vineyard is situated three miles 
and a half north of Fayetteville, N.C. It is said to be the 
largest single vineyard this side of the Rocky Mountains ; and, 
speaking after a personal inspection, we pronounce it one of the 
loveliest locations that can be found anywhere on the continent. 
Such is the concurrent testimony of almost all visitors. 

" Situated on a broad, undulating tableland on the Cape Fear 
River, some two hundred feet above its ordinary level, and one 
hundred and fifty above the rich alluvial plantations on the 
opposite bank, the eye takes in a semicircular horizon of twenty 
odd miles in radius. 

" Nature has done much for it, art more. With upwards of one 
hundred acres in bearing vines, which is being rapidly extended 


from year to year, and every thing kept as neat and trim as a 
lady's flower-garden, with its young orchards of choice fruits, fish- 
ponds, numerous springs of the purest water, and running brooks, 
it is, simply as a thing of beauty, utility being left out of the 
account, well worth a day's journey to behold. 

" But its hospitable proprietor has blended the utile ct diilce 
in harmonious whole, and all around betokens a refined taste 
combined with an eye to the end. 

"He is an enthusiast in his vocation, both on moral and eco- 
nomic grounds ; and his highest ambition seems to be, that he 
may hereafter be the accredited pioneer of an industry which 
he is sanguine is destined at an early day to be the leading one 
of his State. 

" In his estimate of adaptability — latitudinal, climatic, and 
meteorologic — he concurs in the opinion of the celebrated Nicho- 
las Longworth of Cincinnati (the true father of viticulture in 
America), that North Carolina is the natural habitat of the vine, 
and the normal vineyard of the Western World. With a courage 
and a will deserving of success, he proposes to prove it. If he 
does it, the two-blades-of-grass hero, or he who is capable of com- 
manding a hundred thousand men, is distanced in the race of 
public benefaction. 

" That vine-growing is destined at an early day to assume the 
proportions which it has long maintained in the older world as 
its leading industry, none can doubt who are cognizant of the 
ravages of the tiny insect termed phylloxera, more dreaded by 
the vine-planter than an army with banners. 

" The native American wine-grapes are proof against the scourge, 
at least those of the csstivalis class. ^ Tokay' is planted almost 
exclusively of varieties of that family, numbering some thirty or 
forty altogether, including the Scuppernong and its offshoots (the 
Meisch, Flowers, etc.), the Norton, Cynthiana, Hermann, Martha, 


Delaware, Ives, Cottage, Telegraph, Champion, Riilander, Herbe- 
mont, Concord, etc.; naming the last in the order of merit, as 
adapted to the soil and climate of the place. 

" Col. Green fully indorses all that has been said in praise of the 
Norton and Cynthiana, and pronounces them the finest red-wine 
grapes in the world. Such was the award at the Vienna, and at 
the Paris Exposition they received very high commendation. 

"The wine-product for the season before the last was about 
twenty-five thousand gallons. With an equally favorable one this 
year, the proprietor is sanguine that the yield will exceed forty 
thousand gallons, owing to increased growth of the older vines, 
and acreage in new ones. His cellars have a storage-capacity of 
fifty or sixty thousand, and are now about half full. These wines 
have been pronounced by Dr. Sayre of New York, Dr. Gardiner 
of the army, and other high authorities, the finest native wines 
they ever drank. They have been awarded the gold medals and 
all the first premiums, at four last State fairs, and three first at 

"The dwelling is a large, commodious, and comfortable struc- 
ture, with little pretension to architectural elegance, but well 
adapted to the use of a gentleman of active business-habits. 

" It is lighted with gas made on the place, and supplied with 
pure spring water by means of a steam pump half a mile off. 
The proprietor is an enthusiastic disciple of Izaak Walton, and 
has four or five ponds well stocked with the most approved varie- 
ties of fish. 

" Besides the vineyard proper, there are about seven hundred 
acres additional, with a fine saw-mill attached to the place, belong- 
ing to, and forming part of, the plantation." 

" The Wines of Tokay. — It may not be amiss in this sketch 
to take a critical look at the wines produced at this vineyard. 
Indeed, it will doubtless be expected that a thorough and truthful 


criticism should be passed upon them, to round it off and give it 
real value. 

*' Before entering upon this, we remark that what is said of these 
wines must apply, so far as general principles and characteristics 
are concerned, to the wines of the whole South, and will most 
likely be taken in many quarters as an authoritative exposition of 
the relative character and value of these wines. We therefore feel 
that a just regard for the interest of so large a portion of the coun- 
try, and the correlative interests of other portions, requires of us 
considerable circumspection and caution in setting up what ought 
to, and must if true, stand as historical facts upon the viticulture 
of such portion. 

" To begin, therefore, we observe that the wines made at Tokay 
vineyards are of a dual character. The red and white wines made 
from the grapes that flourish in the States farther north are to 
be found here in perfection ; because the long and hot season 
secures a full ripening of the fruit, carrying the must up to a high 
degree, thereby insuring sufficient saccharine matter to produce 
the requisite quantity of alcohol without the addition of sugar. 

" Of this class, the Norton and Cynthiana, the Delaware and 
Martha, etc., constitute the bulk. As these wines are well known 
to everybody, we need only add that nearly one-half the vine- 
yards are taken up by these vines, and chiefly by the two first ; 
also that the new plantings are almost wholly made of these 

"Of the other class — the Scuppernong, and its children the 
Flowers and Meisch, constituting an entirely distinct and widely 
different group, peculiar to the States south of the thirty-sixth 
parallel of north latitude — an extremely interesting essay might 
be written, and indeed, to do it justice, much more than we can 
crowd into this brief sketch. 

"The natural home of this grape is in all the seacoast States 



from North Carolina to Texas, including Arkansas and Mississippi. 
It seems to prefer the sandy coast-lands, though it flourishes mag- 
nificently on any good cotton-land. It was discovered on Roanoke 
Island three hundred years ago, where the original vine — covering 
more than an acre of arbor, and bearing fruit enough yearly to 
make from two thousand to twenty-five hundred gallons of wine — 
is still living. It is said the first wine made on this continent was 
made from this vine. 

" Tokay Vineyards, at the time Col. Green purchased the prop- 
erty, had about sixty acres of these vines in bearing; viz., Scup- 
pernong, Flowers, and Meisch. These were trained in the usual 
way prevalent throughout the Southern States, on arbors, and 
have produced from fifteen to twenty-five thousand gallons of wine 
yearly since. 

" The wines as prepared at the Tokay cellars are the Dry Red 
and Dry White, and Sweet Red and Sweet White, and are so 

" In general characteristics they resemble the Spanish and 
Madeira wines ; and the Sweet White is not unlike the California 
Mission, though much more delicate in bouquet, and, when given 
proper age, approaches the closest to a fine old Madeira of any 
wine yet produced in this country. This wine will constitute a 
good basis for a sherry wine when made with that view ; and we 
have seen some samples of such from these vineyards which 
strongly resembled Old Brown Sherry, and would do credit to 
any gentleman's sideboard and private cellar. Other samples, 
again, made from the Flowers, — a black Scuppernong seedling, 
— as a dry wine, resemble certain red wines of Hungary already 
highly esteemed in this country, and as a sweet wine bears a close 
relation in character to Spanish Red. 

" The manner of handling these wines at Tokay, under the able 
management of the superintendent, Mr. McBuie, is careful, sys- 


tematic, and thorough to a degree, and calculated, if due age is 
given, to bring out their good qualities. 

" As to the methods of training the Scuppernong vines, as prac- 
tised at Tokay Vineyards, we may be pardoned for saying, that it 
is not the system to bring out the full capacities of the Scuppernong 
as a wine-grape, being the old-time arbor system in vogue through- 
out the South. 

" By that system it is not possible to produce a must weighing 
over sixty-five degrees Oechle's, and frequently it drops as low as 
sixty degrees. On the other hand, some of our correspondents 
who have adopted the high-trellis system, and pruned the vines, 
and fertilized them, as other species usually are, have informed us 
that they have annually obtained a must weighing from eighty to 
eighty-five degrees. Of course it will be seen from this, that in 
any event it will be necessary to add sugar to produce a wine that 
will stand up in any climate, and bear shipwreck anywhere ; or to 
add salicylic acid. This is true of many other good wine-grapes, 
both here and in Europe. 

"The following is the analysis of the North-Carolina Scupper- 
nong, as made by the chemists of the Agricultural Department at 
Washington : — 

Specific gravity, 1.0122; per cent alcohol by weight, 14.14; per cent 
alcohol by volume, 18; per cent total residue, 8.38; per cent total ash, 
1.04 ; per cent sugar, 6.67 ; per cent total acid as tartaric, .741 ; per cent 
fixed acid as tartaric, .459 ; per cent volatile acid as acetic, .234. 

" A study of this table shows that the wine possesses in a com- 
paratively high degree the vinous properties of a good healthful 
wine. It certainly is highly esteemed by the medical profession 
throughout the South, and is often prescribed by them where a 
gentle stimulant or tonic is needed, and especially in certain 
kidney ailments, with the utmost confidence and faith. 


"The grape is ironclad against every insect pest at present 
known, healthy, prolific bearer, of rapid, robust growth, extremely 
long lived ; and, when a better method of training the vines is 
adopted, a much higher place in the scale of American wine- 
grapes awaits it." 

This from "The Wilmington Journal," June 8, 1883 : — 

" A neat but modest cottage, resting on the brow of a gradually 
sloping hill, surrounded by well-kept grape-vines and young fruit- 
trees, is the home at Tokay, near Fayetteville, of Hon. Wharton J. 
Green, congressman-elect from the Third North-Carolina District. 
It is one which might well be considered the ideal home of a poet ; 
being beautifully located, and handsome in its surroundings, nestled 
as it is in the midst of the beautiful Tokay Vineyard, surrounded 
by almost innumerable trellised grape-vines of equal height, whose 
verdure embraces every tint of spring's first harbinger of abundant 
yield. The unpretentious cottage of our congressman is truly a 
beautiful oasis of peace and tranquil repose in this ever progres- 
sive world. 

" Chaste and beautiful statuary is gracefully placed about the 
grounds immediately surrounding the home which Col. Green has 
made for himself and family. . . . 

" After being warmly welcomed by Col. Green, and resting in 
the home of our congressman, we were shown over the grounds, 
and through the vineyard. 

" Tokay consists of about two hundred acres of fertile land, 
which is under a high state of cultivation, with much more out- 
lying land, which will be taken in and cultivated, as occasion 
requires, in carrying out the ideal and model vineyard of Col. 

" From an observatory-landing on the eastern end of the wine- 
house a most magnificent view of Tokay and the surrounding 



country can be had. The eye follows in every direction the soft 
verdure of the trellised vines down the gradually sloping hills ; 
and when looking in a southerly direction the slope is gradual 
and gentle, until the eye is arrested by the curving branches on 
the Cape Fear River, and the bluffs on the opposite bank, whose 
sides and tops are covered by honeysuckle, wild flowers, and the 
stately water-oak, maple, ash, and the immense variety of trees 
and various foliage for which the river-banks are noted. Looking 
a little farther to the south, the church-spires and the buildings in 
the ancient and historic town of Fayetteville, as it rests languidly 
in the hills which surround it, and through which the gurgling 
waters of the Cross Creek flow, can be seen. Continuing our 
ramble through the grounds, we saw and examined the gas-house, 
the steam pump which supplies the residence with water, the 
foundation of the old wine-house which was destroyed by Sher- 
man's renegades, and drank from the spring, which is noted for 
the purity of its water. We next visited the fish-ponds, which 
Col. Green has spent much time in bringing to their present 
excellent condition. These are five in number ; and each one is 
well stocked with the choicest fish, which seem to know their 
owner's step and voice, and readily come to the edge of the ponds 
to receive food from his hands. 

" Another new propagating-pond is being made, which will 
increase the capacity for raising young fish. 

" Col. Green seems only to have improved upon the natural 
advantages offered, and in so doing has strenuously avoided every 
thing which would tend towards an artificial appearance. A cir- 
cuitous route brought us back to the wine-house and vaults, which 
we were shown through. Here we found over forty thousand 
gallons of wine of different vintages. The vaults are kept at the 
same temperature during the entire year, and from them some of 
the best wines made in this country are taken. 


"A highly competent judge and dealer in imported wines in 
New York has written to the superintenent of Tokay, telling him 
that the wines sent him were equal to the best imported wines he 

" Col. Green is having a new peach and apple orchard planted, 
with improved varieties, and is constantly making additions to his 
vineyard, notwithstanding the fact that Tokay is already one of 
the largest vineyards in this country. The gates of Tokay are 
always open to visitors ; and during the harvest all are welcome to 
partake of the luscious fruit of the vine, while the sick and absent 
ones are never forgotten by the genial host of Tokay." 

"The Raleigh News and Observer" says, — 

" It has been my great pleasure -to visit this most lovely spot, 
the Tokay Vineyard, by invitation of Col. Wharton J. Green. I 
venture the assertion, that it is one of the loveliest spots in the 
State ; and, with the improvements Col. Green is making, in a 
year or two more it will be a place of as much beauty and interest 
as any I know of in the South. There are now one hundred 
acres under the cover of grape-arbors, and vines of every variety 
of grapes. 

"The view from the top of the wine-cellar is not to be sur- 
passed.^ The Claret and Scuppernong are superior to any I have 
ever tasted. Col. Green makes a Dry Scuppernong, which must 
meet a ready sale. And, to my taste, the Claret he makes is as 
good as any I ever drank. The colonel has four valuable fish-ponds, 
with every variety of fish, consisting of carp, speckled trout, perch, 
etc. He has a gasometer on his place, and his premises are lighted 
with gas." 

Scores of certificates from prominent parties, and good judges 
of wine, might be added in support of the purity and excellence of 


the wines of Tokay. A few, however, will suffice as samples of the 
rest. Clipped from " News Observer : " — 

" The Tokay Wines. — Dr. Louis A. Sayre of New York, a 
famous physician, has written a letter to his warm friend, Dr. 
Eugene Grissom, in which he speaks in the highest terms of the 
wines from the celebrated Tokay Vineyard of Col. Wharton J. 
Green, near Fayetteville. In his letter Dr. Sayre says, ' You will 
pardon me for not thanking you sooner for your beautiful present 
of native wine, which a number of friends tried on Christmas Day, 
and pronounced equal, if not superior, to the finest Rhine wines. 
I had no idea such wine was made in this country, and I am very 
proud of it.' " 

Professor Wheeler of United-States Military Academy : — 

West Point, N.Y., April 25, 1883. 

Col. Wharton J. Green, Tokay Vineyard, Fayetteville, N.C. 

My dear Sir, — I have received the last half-barrel of wine which your 
superintendent, Mr. McBuie, shipped me, in compliance with your instruc- 
tions to fill my order, and have given it a fair trial. I consider this last 
shipment as good as, if not superior to, any I have before received. 

I have now been using this brand of wine, Sweet Meisch, upon my table 
for my family for a period of three years. It was first recommended to 
me by Dr. Hughes of Newbern, N.C, and has proved a pure, wholesome, 
and excellent wine in every respect. I have no hesitation in recommend- 
ing this wine to all persons who are desirous of having upon their table a 
wholesome and healthy drink. When persons cannot drink freely of cold 
water — as, unfortunately, there are many — without suffering from its effects, 
I know of nothing that can supply its place like your native wines, so free 
are they from the adulterations and impurities of the foreign stuffs which 
characterize the importations of the day from abroad. I have found this 
wine to be beneficial in its effects, and in fact 3. food for the members of 

my family. 

Most truly yours, 



Judge Woodbury of Boston writes : — 

Boston, May 8, 1883. 

Dear Sir, — The box with native Claret and Scuppernong from your 
vineyard has reached me at the Parker House. Summoning assistance 
from some of its noted connoisseurs, it had a thorough trial, and we found 
the Claret not to be surpassed by any American wine of its kind we had 
ever met ; and in richness of aroma, and fruity quality, it astonished those 
only acquainted with the wines of Europe. 

The Sweet Scuppernong we found smooth, fruity, and a capital ladies' 
wine. With a continuance of the care and skill in its preparation that your 
wine evinces, I think this may be made to take the front rank among all 
the native wines ; and when it gains dryness by age it will greatly resemble 
the grape-juice of the south side of Madeira. I had no idea the soil near 
Fayetteville was so favorable for the vine-culture, but I now understand 
the judgment of those committees who have awarded medals and prizes to 
the products of the "Tokay Vineyard." 

I am very faithfully yours, 

Hon. Wharton J. Green, Fayetteville, N.C. 

Dr. Gardner of the army writes : — 

Fort Davis, Tex., May 28, 1883. 

W. J. Green, Esq. 

Dear Sir, — It gives me great pleasure to add my testimony to the many 
you have already received regarding the excellence of your wines. When 
all are so good, it is hard to discriminate ; but those which especially tickled 
my gustatory nerves are the Claret, the Dry Scuppernong, and the Sweet 

I am no longer a juvenile, and during the past twenty years have drunk 
considerable imported Claret ; and, to my experience, jf?//;' Claret has a much 
pleasanter effect, both on the palate and on the system generally, than either 
the imported Margaux or the Medoc. 

The Sweet Meisch is a universal favorite with ladies. I have never offered 
it to a lady who was not pleased with its delicate bouquet and flavor. And 
on the same grounds it is much esteemed by invalids, while its percentage 


of alcohol is not so great as to render it too stimulating. The Scupper- 
nong, too, is a wine that has warm recommendations. Its delicious flavor, 
perfect purity, and entire absence from any hurtful effect upon the system, 
will, I know, soon cause it to come into general use wherever its qualities 
are known. 

I have already recommended your wines to many of my friends ; and I 
shall feel that I have only done my duty, if my commendations help in the 
least to establish the use of pure native wines, and to decrease the con- 
sumption of the vile foreign concoctions sold as the juice of the grape. 
I am, sir, very respectfully your obedient servant, 

W. H. GARDNER, U.D., Major and Surgeci, U.S. Army. 

From Capt. Conrad of Tenth Infantry, U.S.A. : — 

Fort Randall, Dakota, July 26, 18S3. 

Hon. W. J. Green. 

Sir, — It has been about two years since I first met with the wines of 
Tokay Vineyard ; and after quite a trial of both the Claret, Sweet Meisch, 
and Sherry you manufacture there, I am pleased to state that I consider 
them vastly superior to any other native wines I have ever used. In fact, I 
consider your Claret as unequalled by any other maker, either abroad or at 
home. It is a rich, pure, fruity wine, of delicate taste and odor, and I 
believe a more heahhful wine than any other i have used on my table. 

I have noticed also its superiority over California Claret, in the fact that 
it can be kept quite a number of days in a decanter, and apparently suffer 
no deterioration from partial exposure to the air ; while all the California 
Claret I have used has soured by the second day. I take pleasure in 
recommending your wines to all who desire a pure, honest article. 

Yours respectfully, 

J. A. CONRAD, Captain Tenth Infantry. 

The late Henry Nutt of Wilmington says, " Send me another 
case of your Claret. I unhesitatingly pronounce it not only 
equal to, but in my sober judgment superior to, the best imported 
article I ever drank." 


Capt. Tomkins of the army : — 

114 East 19TH Street, New York, May 21, 1883. 

It affords me pleasure to testify to the very excellent qualities of the 
Scuppernong wine from the Tokay Vineyard of Fayetteville. The wine, 
both sweet and dry, is far superior to any of the kind I have ever tasted ; 
and I feel assured it will rapidly take a prominent rank among the native 

wines of this country. 

J. S. TOMKINS, Captain U.S.A. 

Lieut. J. T. French, jun., writes : — 

West Point, N.Y., April 23, 1883. 

... It gives me pleasure to say that I consider the Sweet Concord wine 
sent me from Tokay Vineyard, and again this spring, the most satisfactory 
wine of its kind that I have ever tasted. If the Claret frdm your vineyard 
is as good, I am sure that the army mess of this post can easily be made a 
customer, and their indorsement will be worth something to you. . . . 

I would like to see the absurd notion, that wine can't be good unless it 
is imported, shown up in its proper light. 

Very respectfully, 
J. T. FRENCH, Jun., 2d Lieutenant Fourth Artillery. 

The award of the Atlanta Exposition reads : — 

" Ives Seedling Wine. Best on exhibition, and premium of $5 recom- 

" Norton^ s Virginia Wine. Sparkling wines and still wines. Best on 
exhibition, and especially recommended for table wine. Premium $5. 

" We find also that Col. W. J. Green has the best collection of sparkling 
wines, for which we recommend an award of the first premium of $15. 
His sparkling Scuppernong ranks with the best native Champagne. Also 
second premium for best collection of still wines. We found in these 


collections samples of wine of very superior quality, equal to the best 
imported wines." 

The last four State Fairs have awarded all the first premiums, 
including three gold medals, to the wines of Tokay : so have the 
Fruit-Growers' Fairs of the State, and all the County Fairs, wher- 
ever it has entered for competition. 

If he who causes two blades of grass to grow where but one 
grew before is greater than he who winneth a battle, surely he 
who causes a new industry to spring into existence where it was 
unknown before is not without service to his fellow-man. 

The pioneer is usually a public benefactor, be it a Columbus, a 
De Soto, a Raleigh on unploughed seas, a Boone in the wilds of 
Kentucky, an Arkwright, Fulton, Faraday, Maury, Morse, or 
Edison in the fields of science, or he in agriculture who demon- 
strates the feasibility and profit of growing valuable products in 
localities before considered unsuited. In either case the essential 
elements of the hero — nerve, penetration, self-reliance, and con- 
tempt for the sneers of witlings — are indispensable to success. 
And we hold that the humanizing agents of advancement are 
infinitely more to be honored than the representatives of the 
destructive or brutalizing idea. 

If a Krupp, an Armstrong, or a Gatling are to be held in honor 
of men for their terrible engines of destruction, who shall gainsay 
at least equal praise to him who contributes in any wise to the 
amelioration of the race, or the development of his State .-' Such, 
as a rule, are not without honor, save in their own country. There, 
contempt is usually their portion. 

Nicholas Longworth setting out his little vine-patch on the hill- 


slopes of the Ohio overlooking Cincinnati, was probably as much 
an object of ridicule to the wise-acres about him as was the first 
arkwright whilst preparing for the big freshet. The one, how- 
ever, became the second founder of the human family, and the 
first recorded patron of the wine. The other, although he ever led 
an active life, and accumulated a colossal fortune, always main- 
tained, and posterity will affirm, that the vine-patch constitutes 
his chiefest claim on the gratitude of those who are to come after. 
And why .^ Others had planted vine-patches before, and rested in 
the shade thereof .■* Most true. But none in the New World had 
planted with the purpose and intent of working out a mighty prob- 
lem, the solution of which was considered as chimerical as the 
quadrature of the circle. 

He it was who answer gave to the sceptical query of quid mines, 
" Can wine be made in America } " His experimental answer was 
no doubtful affirmative, and is to-day worth annual millions to 
his trusting and confiding followers. It will, in the no distant 
future, be worth untold millions to his countrymen in the moral, 
economic, hygienic aspect of the case. The proposition critically 
examined, and none but bigots will refuse him a niche amongst 
the world's benefactors. Reason why .'* This strong conglomerate 
race to which we belong ever has, and, as much as it is to be 
deplored, probably ever will use stimulants. Then give us the 
least pernicious. Is it corn-juice, or is it grape-juice .'' Upon 
answer to this hingeth answer, " Was Nick Longworth a bene- 
factor .^ " Science tells us at the threshold, that alcohol evolved 
by fermentation is less noxious than that of distillation. 

O "ye unco guid !" follow me to the vine-clad hills of sunny 
France, the Rhenish slopes, the Spanish plains, Italian arbors, and 
terraced hillsides of the Sicilies, Teneriffe, and Madeira, where 
the vine has, or had, an established home, and tell me if amongst 
the festive bands of youths and maidens returning from the lus- 


cious clusters and well-stocked cellars, after their day's work is 
done, you observe a beastly Bacchanal, half man and half goat, 
Silenus-like, tottering under an excess of alcoholic dead weight. 
And yet I invite you to the lands where the juice of the fruit of 
the vine is almost as abundant, cheap, and free as Nature's bever- 
age. Let us now wend our way to the lands where the grape 
groweth not, or is just beginning to grow, — Russia, Sweden, 
Norway, England, Scotland, Ireland, Mexico, and even our own 
favored country. Mark the contrast, and answer make according. 
It seems to be an inscrutable law of nature, that, as wine increases, 
drunkenness diminishes. As regards the United States, it has 
lately been stated officially, that, population considered, there is 
not half the amount of distilled spirits drunk at this time that 
there was twenty years ago. Whilst the advocates of a high direct 
tax on the article — in spite of the admission of parliamentary 
committees to the contrary, in the case of Scotland and Ireland, 
where the experiment of a tax supposed to be prohibitory has had 
a fair test and trial — are disposed to claim all the credit for the 
reduction in consumption, the native wine-grower modestly puts 
in his claim, and holds that the largely increased production of 
home-made cheap wines accounts, more than all things else, for 
the corresponding falling-off in consumption of gin, rum, brandy, 
whiskey, etc. 

From the earliest recorded times, the cultivation of the vine, and 
the expression and fermentation of the juice of the grape, has 
been one of the recognized great industries of the world. After 
the indispensable " staff of life," it has been the chiefest pillar 
of national prosperity for more great States than any other one 
agricultural staple that can be named. 

During the long period that "The Eternal City " was the recog- 
nized mistress of the world, and when the Roman Legions bore 
"the eagle" from the Pillars of Hercules to the Euphrates and 


Indus, and from the equatorial south to the frozen north, wine 
was the established market and money crop of that puissant people. 
The vine was the foster-child of the senate, of consuls, and of 
tribunes. The annual product was immense, and freely was it 
consumed. At home and in camp it was drunk like water, and yet 
drunkenness was not the prevailing vice of Rome. That its use 
was not enervating, we have but to turn to the recorded achieve- 
ments, the unparalleled endurance, of her matchless soldiery, to 
have all doubts resolved. The reason is obvious. They made a 
pure article, and drank nothing stronger. In the heyday of the 
republic, before national decay, the inevitable result of personal 
decadence, set in, honesty was no less the rule in Rome than were 
patriotism, courage, and frugality. Short weights and measures, 
counterfeiting and adulterations, stamped the guilty party with 
the Latin synonyme of the good old English word "scoundrel;" 
and swift and terrible penalty followed. The diabolic arts and 
playful tricks of modern chemistry, by which harmless simples are 
so blended and compounded as to prove most noxious and destruc- 
tive to human health and life, were then unknown on the banks 
of the Tiber. Pure wine and healthy food, neither of which had 
undergone the manipulations of an " expert," were the only sort 
sold in the markets of Rome ; and a brave, vigorous, simple, and 
healthy race was the result. 

Unlike the citizens of " the great modern republic," those of 
"the great ancient " had nothing more terrible to apprehend than 
a Carthaginian arrow, or the javelin of a Gaul. Grim distrust 
had no seat at the festal board to whisper with every crook of the 
elbow, " Do you know what you are putting in your mouth } " But 
to return from this digression. The vine to-day (or, rather, yes- 
terday, before the terrible phylloxera began to work upon it) is 
or was the source of the material prosperity of the nations of 
Southern and Central Europe. 


In France it had for centuries maintained proportions which 
dwarfed all other pursuits, the yearly crop largely exceeding in 
market-value that of our much vaunted textile fabric, cotton. 

Has inebriety kept pace with yearly increasing product in 
those countries ? It has, but in the inverse ratio. The traveller 
will tell you that it is a rare sight, that of a drunken man in the 
wine-producing countries of the Old World. If such be a fact, 
does it not behoove the philanthropist to pause and stick a pin, 
and ask the reason why > If fact it be, taken in connection with 
another, viz., that the immaculate Saviour of mankind turned water 
into wine at the wedding-feast, it surely ought to silence those 
self-sufficient and narrow-minded bigots who cry out against the 
morality of grape-growing and wine-making. 

// is, of course, a new industry in the lYezv Wor/d, but in the 
last few years has been making headway with the strides of a giant, 
and bids fair, at a no distant day, not only to drive the refuse stuffs 
of the foreign vineyardist out of our own markets, but to compete 
with him in neutral ones, if not in those under the shadow of his 
own vine. 

For generations its introduction and development were retarded 
in our country by the ex cathedra scoff of the Old-World culturist, 
that ivine could under no circumstances be made on this side 
of the Atlantic, and the implicit credence given the statement 
by would-be beginners in the experiment, as well as by wine- 
drinkers themselves, who had to be educated up to the point 
of impartial trial, and to put their own palate on the witness- 
stand, instead of placing implicit reliance on the damnatory 
verdict of an adverse and partial jury. That point has now 
been reached, and it is a great point gained. According to the 
"Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics," published by 
the United-States Government, the amount of native wines con- 
sumed in this country is over twenty-five per cent of all that is 


used ; and the supply and the demand are increasing with acceler- 
ated speed. 

Whilst there is undoubtedly a certain class of Americans, sui 
gcjicris, who prefer to set up as cojiuoissenrs, and who, to maintain 
their self-complacent assumption of superior taste, will persist in 
being cajoled and "put upon" by foreign pretenders, and native 
dealers in foreign wares, nevertheless, the great bulk of our 
people are too practical, common-sensed, and matter-of-fact to 
continue to take forever foreign notables or foreign wares at the 
exorbitant valuation which they put upon themselves and their 
products. A little while back it was impossible to get a bot- 
tle of native wine at any of the high-priced and fashionable 
eating-houses of the large cities. Now few of them can afford 
to be without them. The repeated demand of their customers 
for a pure, low-priced native beverage has remedied the omission 
on their shelves. 

Doubtless another reason for the result stated is the constantly 
diminishing European supply, owing to the ravages of that con- 
stantly increasing pest of the Old-World vines, previously referred 
to as "phylloxera," which are rapidly sweeping out of existence 
the old recognized source of supply. This tiny insect, which 
attacks the young rootlets of the vine in myriads, denudes them 
of their bark, and leaves them to die a lingering death. Already 
whole districts heretofore devoted exclusively to wine-culture have 
been virtually abandoned for that purpose. Governments have 
offered immense rewards for a remedy, but all in vain ; and the 
old proprietors are now driven to the necessity of introducing 
native American vines of the heretofore by them despised custivalis 
family, which are phylloxera-proof, owing to their thin coating of 
bark, upon which the insect can make no headway. If they can 
make a wine out of our own grapes, the question may well be 
asked, "Why can zve not do it ivith educated labor?'' George 


Hussman, high authority, predicts that in ten years the European 
or Asiatic grape will virtually cease to exist. Why, too, should 
we not then transfer this rich argosy, or rather this close mo- 
nopoly, to our own shores, and hereafter furnish the Old-World 
folk with drink, as we are now doing, to a considerable extent, 
with meat and bread ? 

Mr. Nicholas Longworth, the true father of American viticul- 
ture, stated over thirty years ago that our own State, North 
Carolina, was the normal habitat of the vine on the western 
hemisphere, the natural vineyard of the continent. 

SJioiild not the goveriivicnt encourage the effort ? 

Such we hold to be its duty no less than its interest. The wine- 
grower demands no prohibitory protection against foreign compe- 
tition, although representing an industry but yet in its infancy. 
Natural causes will soon do that. But he thinks he has the right 
to demand that unnatural restriction, such as license-tax from the 
retailer, should straightway be abolished, as calculated to hamper 
and curtail his sales to that class. There is no good reason w^hy 
it should be retained. By detaching it from the same category 
with distilled spirits, the sale of these last would not be per- 
ceptibly affected, and hence neither would the revenue from that 

Why, then, the question may well be asked, should this manufac- 
tured product of the soil be subject to invidious tax more than the 
products from sorghum, jute, hemp, or oil-seeds } No better reason 
than existing usage can be assigned for the retention of such an 
unjust and unwise excise. It has been estimated that the people 
of this country are taxed indirectly no less tJian tzvelve Jiundred and 
fifty mi/lions aiinnally to encourage the manufacturing interests 
of the land. If their juvenility can justify the claim to govern- 
mental protection to such an inconceivable extent, surely this other 
and newer industry may demand in common equity, both for itself 


and for the sake of national prosperity, that all restrictive legisla- 
tion as affecting itself shall at least be abrogated. 

The vine first loomed into importance in the New World on the 
banks of the Ohio, although the Spanish Jesuits had cultivated it 
extensively a century or two before in New Mexico and California. 
To-day it occupies a prominent place amongst the leading indus- 
tries of Ohio, Missouri, Texas, California, New York, New Jersey, 
and Virginia. North Carolina has been laggard in its develop- 
ment, although the birth State of many of the most approved 
varieties, and especially of the grape prodigy previously spoken of 
as "the Scuppernong," whose discovery is coeval with Caucasian 
rule on the continent. It is essentially a tropical, or rather semi- 
tropical, plant, and will not flourish north of 36° 30' north latitude, 
and, unlike too many of Carolina's sons, prefers its native State to 
any other. Its fruit fresh from the vine is conceded, by nearly 
all who have ever tried it, to be one of the most delicious in the 
world. It is one which grows upon the palate, and increases in 
popularity upon better acquaintance. Besides its nutritive and 
palatable attributes, it is conceded, by all who know it, to possess 
high medicinal properties, and is so recommended by the medical 
faculty, on account of its aperient and diuretic qualities. The 
same is true of its wine, when properly made, and not degraded 
into a sirup by the profuse artificial addition of sugar. 

The celebrated chemist and scientist. Dr. Jackson of Boston, 
in a report of his published by the United-States Government 
a few years ago, predicts with undoubting assurance that in no 
distant future it will be admitted to be, " not only the wine-grape 
of America, but the wine-grape of the world." When that day 
arrives, the wild vine discovered by the bold adventurers sent out 
by the gifted and godlike Raleigh will have become of greater 
commercial and economic value to the State whose capital town 
bears his name, than the wonderful weed to whose soothing infla- 


ence he became the slave, as has the world after him, — " that 
noxious plant," which in spite of the ridicule of philosophers, the 
curse of kings, the interdict of parliaments, and the anathema of 
popes, is to-day of more universal use than any other named one 
in the vegetable kingdom. These are " the words of soberness 
and truth," although the subject is vinous. We are willing to 
stake our reputation as a prophet upon it. A generation or two 
hence, at most, will render verdict indicated. The prediction is 
predicated no less upon its already recognized merits than upon 
the necessity of the case. As the natural production of the Old 
World is curtailed by cause over which the vintner has no con- 
trol, the law of demand will necessitate it. A bona fide, genuine 
wine of long-recognized attributes is to-day inadequate to supply 
Xht present home demand, leaving the future out of account, and 
ignoring the foreign market. Where demand outstrips supply, be 
the commodity what it may, one of two results must follow ; viz., 
enhanced price, or a spurious article. Notwithstanding the annual 
and accelerated diminution of yield, the price, all things consid- 
ered, is no higher than it was a quarter of a century ago (for 
foreign wines). This conceded, is it not patent that a counterfeit 
article must have supplanted the old-time honest one, not only to 
meet existing home demand, but more especially to satisfy the 
craving of alien idiots, who will be content with nothing else than 
an "imported article " .-• 

Adulteration. — Does any doubt the ramified and pernicious 
extent to which it has of late years been carried .^ If any there 
be so credulous and besotted as to believe that label or bottle is 
index of contents, and who plumeth himself that he is drinking 
the juice of the Asiatic grape whilst he sips his Moselle, his Rhine, 
Marsala, or Douro, let him ask himself the question, and answer 
from the presumptive stand-point. If that is not conclusive, leav- 
ing facts and data out of question, we propose to call but a single 


witness to the stand out of the thousand and one who might be 
subpoenaed to estabhsh the point at issue. The " Journal. des 
Debats," being Frcuch, may well be considered an impartial wit- 
ness, or, if biassed at all, to be so in behalf of the native producer 
instead of the foreign consumer. See what it says as culled from 
a late copy of "The London Times." 

If, after reading it, any still prefers to drink the vile decoctions 
palmed off on an unsuspecting world, then all that can be said is, 
that there is no accounting for taste. If convinced of the abomi- 
nation, does it not behoove him to be very cautious of foreign 
wines .'' If, after being convinced by such unimpeachable evidence, 
he still persists in clinging to his high-priced Sauterne, Champagne, 
or Hungary, then may it be said of him, as was said of another in 
other days, " Ephraim is joined to his idols : let him alone." If 
the question be asked. Whence any better assurance of purity in 
native than in foreign wines .-* the answer would naturally be, 
Lower price holds out less incentive to adulterating rascality. 
Besides, the American producer, being comparatively a new be- 
ginner, is not up to " the tricks of the trade " of the Old-World 
culturist. The most harmless counterfeit wine which Europe sends 
us is the native American, which is palmed off under foreign labels 
to an ever credulous public at two or three times the original price. 
As long as fools can be found to set such value upon the impress 
of a cork, or the lettering of a card, it will not be otherwise. But 
call the French witness, and let us hear what he has to say : — 

" The Adulteration of Wine. — A question which greatly interests 
the producers of wine, but more especially the consumers of wine, 
in France, is now attracting public attention and the press. Sev- 
eral among the wine-merchants of Paris have held a great meeting 
at the Cirque d'Hiver, under the presidency of M. Duvergier, who 
made a very long speech, in which he did his best to defend the 
wine-trade from the accusations springing from all sides against 


the poisonous liquid sold for wine. The writing of M. Henri de 
Parville, which has appeared in the scientific fcnillcton of the 
'Journal des Debats,' will not encourage people to drink what is 
now sold for French wine. He says, 'The fabrication and adulter- 
ation of the wine commences when the liquid is prepared, to render 
it clear, and apt for preservation. Previous to its Alteration, it is 
mixed with albumen, gelatine, blood, and milk. These substances 
agree with the tannin, and are used to modify some wines. Some- 
times the tannin is not sufficient, and is replaced by other poisonous 
ingredients. Very often "alum," a strong poison, is added to give 
the wine a flavored taste. In order to obtain the flavor to which 
the palate of foreign consumers, and especially of the English 
and American, is accustomed, oxide of lead is added to destroy 
the acidity. Alcohols produced from corn are added to increase 
its strength. Arsenic, sulphuric acid, and tartaric acid are added 
to give it color.' The writer dwells at length on the subject ; and 
his revelations have quite startled the Parisians, and ought to 
startle the British public, who are one of the greatest consumers 
of these poisonous drinks. After pointing to the immense damage 
done to public health by the wine-manufacturers of France, the 
' Intransiegeant ' declares that it cares far more for the health of 
the public than the reputation of the P^rench wine-trade, and con- 
cludes, ' What interests us most in this question is not the wine- 
traders but the consumers. The " honor of the trade " has neither 
palate nor stomach, nor father, mother, wife, and children ; " honor 
of the trade" knows nothing of inflammation of the bowels, and 
nobody has seen the aforesaid "honor" die from the effects of 
colic. The worst agonies of this "honor of the trade " will always 
be more insignificant than the mildest pains supported by the last 
of the consumers. Therefore, at a time when not one of the pub- 
lic administration fulfils its duties, in which incorruptibility is noth- 
ing but a dream, in which it is no longer monstrous to be monstrous, 



we feel it our duty to congratulate the Laboratoire Municipal on its 
courage for refusing its protection to the poisoners of the people.' " 
— London Times. 



White Sweet Scuppernong 
White Dry Scuppernong 
Red Sweet Scuppernong 
Red Dry Scuppernong 
White Sweet Delaware 
White Dry Delaware 
Red Sweet Meisch 
Red Dry Meisch . 
White Sweet Tokay 
Red Sweet Concord 
Red Dry Concord 
Carolina Rose 
Claret . . 
Port . . . 
Sherry . . 
Muscatel . 


$1 oo 
I oo 
I oo 
I oo 

I 25 
I 25 
I 25 
I 25 
I 25 
I 25 
I 25 
I 25 

I 00 

I 25 

I 25 
I 25 

I 00 



• U 50 

• 4 50 

• 4 50 

• 4 50 

• 5 00 

White Sweet Scuppernong, 6's 

White Dry Scuppernong, 6's . 

Red Sweet Scuppernong, 6's . 

Red Dry Scuppernong, 6's . . 

White Sweet Delaware, 6's 

White Dry Delaware, 6's .... 5 00 

Red Sweet Meisch, 6's 5 00 

Red Dry Meisch, 6's 5 00 

White Sweet Tokay, 6's 5 00 

Red Sweet Concord, 6's 5 00 

Red Dry Concord, 6's 5 00 

Carolina Rose, 6's 5 00 

Claret, 6's 4 50 

Port, 6's 5 00 

Sherry, 6's 5 00 

Muscatel, 6's 5 00 

Sacramental, 6's 4 5° 

Champagne (quarts) 9 00 

Champagne (2 doz. pints.). . . . 10 00 


IVe warrajit our Szoeet IViiies not to turn sour on draught. Our Dry Wines in wood 
(ire the same prices as the Szveet ; but we cannot zoarrant them against turning sour on 
draught, and, if ordered in wood, are always sent at purchaser'' s risk. No light Dty Wines, 
either native or foreign, will keep on draught, hence, if ordered in wood, should be bottled. 

No charge for package if ordered by the barrel. If in less (juantity than a barrel, one 
dollar for each package taill be charged. 

We spare no pains or expense to make our wiues of a standard and uniform quality, 
and trust you will favor us with your orders. 

Orders will be filled promptly. A liberal discount to the trade. 

Verv respectfully, 

"W. J. GREEN. 


United States Consular Reports. 

We deem a few extracts from the able and exhaustive Report of 
Hon. Thomas Wilson, consul at Nantes, France, entirely apposite 
to the subject. (See Reports from the Consuls of the United 
States, No. 27, January, 1883.) ". . . This portion of this Report 
is intended to deal with this question in its relation to French 
wines and liquors, to show that they have been adulterated, have 
been made deleterious, if not poisonous, and as such exported to 
foreign countries, the United States among the rest, and, if the 
policy of reprisal should be adopted, that French wines and liquors 
as at present ;;/rt;-?/{Azr///;r^ would be a proper subject. . . . Every- 
body knows or says that the wines and liquors of France are 
adulterated, and they deprecate it ; but the consumption and use 
of the adulterated article go on much the same as if no adultera- 
tion existed. I shall endeavor to give some information from 
statistics furnished by French authorities, and so not to be con- 
troverted, showing the extent to which this adulteration is carried, 
and in some slight degree its effect upon the people. 

"... France is the greatest wine-producing country in the 
world. The total production and commerce in wine for 1882 
amounted to 2,056,692,491 francs (about $410,000,000). . . . 


"In 1879 commenced seriously the ravages of the national 
plague, — the phylloxera. Without study, one cannot appreciate 
the extent of the ravages, nor the great damage this inflicted on 
France. In 1879-80 it utterly destroyed 1,250,000 acres of full- 
bearing vines. It seriously damaged about 1,250,000 acres more. 
It reduced the wine-crop to 25,000,000 hectoliters in 1879, being a 
loss of about 800,000,000 of gallons, to say nothing of Eau de 
vie, Cognac, etc. 

[Note. — Observe the traffic in the article before and since this 
tremendous diminution of supply began, and say does it indicate 
a healthy source .-• — Ed.] 

Total Export of Wines and Liquors. 

1877 . . . . . . . Francs, 285,800,000 

1881 ....... Francs, 332,300,000 

" Yet this immense failure of from five hundred to eight hun- 
dred millions of gallons, continued year after year, has had no 
perceptible effect ^n the quantity of wine drunk, the facility with 
which it can be obtained, nor the price to be paid for it. [See 
figures above.] . . . How has this great feat been accomplished } 
The recuperative power of France, after one year's war with 
Germany, and her ability to make the most out of the least, was 
at once the wonder and the admiration of the world ; but in the 
case of failure of the wine-crop she has shown unexpected recu- 
perative power, and the ability to continue it for an indefinite 

" How has she been able to accomplish it, — this secret of mak- 
ing something out of nothing .^ Answer. They have imported 
in large quantities the cheap, heavy wines of Spain and Italy. 
They have imported raisins from Greece and Turkey, soaked them, 
and expressed the juice ; and to these bases they add alcohol, 


coloring matter, and water in all imaginable proportions, kinds, 
quantities, and degrees ; and thus they manufacture what they 
call wine, sell for wine, and export to the United States for 

"Family Secrets. — The president of the tariff commission, 
Monsieur Pouzer-Quertier, made a speech (in the Senate), in which 
he set forth the true condition of France, and appealed to his 
colleagues to meet the tariff question fairly. He said, p. 133, 'I 
have seen on the quays of Bordeaux, and I believe I can see the 
same to-day, a quantity of wines of Spain which had come to 
the borders of the Garonne. I asked of the Bordelais, if, per- 
chance, these wines, worth only eighty or eighty-five francs per 
hectoliter, had not come to Bordeaux to breathe the air of 
Garonne, and be transformed into Mcdoc. 

'"This represents a certain benefit; for one must admit that 
this wine contains alcohol to fifteen degrees, and that, with one 
barrel of it and one of the water of tJie Garonne, they make tzvo barrels 
of zaine.' At this, the minister of agriculture and commerce takes 
fire. Hear him. ' I remark to the Hon. M. Pouzer-Quertier, that 
it is a singular fashion to defend the industries of a great country 
like France to come here and tell, apropos of our wines, of the 
melanges which are made with the water, the mixing . . . [prot- 
estations from divers benches], and to come here to thus dis- 

" 'In truth it is a singnlar fashion for Jiini to proceed [more inter- 
ruptions]. You understand that since two or three years, either 
from phylloxera, from frost, or from dropping of the fruit, we have 
descended from an annual production of sixty million hectoliters 
to twenty-eight million. It is incontestable that we have not 
produced the same quantity of wine ; and, althongh zve may add 
ivater, it is still necessary to seek in foreign countries that which 


we have lost.' " Mr. Wilson continues, ""I have shown enough 
to raise a presumption of its wholesale Diainifactnrc. 

"I have shown, (i) the failure of the crop sufficient to produce 
a famine ; (2) no diminution in either consumption or exportation ; 
(3) no corresponding increase in price ; (4) an immense increase 
in importation of the (known to be) heavy wines of Spain and 
Italy ; and (5) the entire making of the crop of raisin-wine, the 
two latter being in sufficient quantities in the aggregate to make 
good the deficit ; (6) that the charge of this wholesale manufacture 
was made publicly in the Senate of France, and several senators 
shouted, in support of it, that ' all the world knew it to be so ; ' 
(7) the minister of agriculture and commerce, replying to the 
senator, did not deny the charge, but upbraided the senator for 
making it, and said, if it was true, it had its justification. ... A 
French chemist once said, ' Wine is a mixture of alcohol and 
sugar and water ; but,' added he, ' mixing alcohol and sugar and 
water will not make wine.' . . . Wine has been falsified and adul- 
terated in all ages ; but, until twenty years ago, it was done so 
clumsily, that its detection was easy. Most wine-dealers would 
detect it by the taste, or, if not, at the expense of a piece of cream- 

" All this has been changed. Now the falsificators profit by and 
make use of all the progress of modern chemistry ; and the art of 
making wine zvitJioiit the juice of the grape has attained such a 
degree of perfection and skill, that experts, epicures, and chemists 
alike are baffled, and hesitate before pronouncing. 

"M. Girard, director of the Laboratoire Municipal at Paris, prob- 
ably the foremost authority in Europe or the world, says in his 
official report, amongst other things denunciatory of wholesale 
adulteration, ' After attempting to pass a large quantity of water 
under the name of wine, they add to the nionillage the alcohol of 
an inferior quality of potatoes or beets, which contains alcohol 


AMYLiouE, which produccs a drunkenness far worse than that pro- 
duced by the alcohol of wine. These, with all their ramifications, 
are not the only falsifications : the body, the aroma, the bouquet, 
of the finest qualities of grand wines, are imitated on a large 
scale by scientific process. . . . Each day the chemist is met by 
new difficulties. He is obliged to labor without cessation to per- 
fect his methods to combat those who dishonor science by using 
her to perpetrate frauds.' 

"... This inspection was principally for wines colored with 
fucJisinc, it being known or determined that no combination of that 
article but vj^ls poisono?ts. 

The result of that inspection was as follows : — 
Number of establishments inspected, 300 : number of hectoliters confis- 
cated, 3,307 (or about 85,000 gallons), all being wine, fiichsiiie ; proportion 
of samples found dad, 59 to 17 per cent ; not poison, 2,309 samples ; poison, 
977 samples. 

"Can it be wondered that 'insanity from alcoholisni has in- 
creased from seven to fourteen per cent,' or double .'' " — Report of 
Minister of Justice. 

These extracts tally entirely with the reports of the consuls at 
La Rochelle and other wine ports of France. 

If forty per cent of the wines sold in Paris are poisonous, as per 
report of Inspector, is it not safe to assume that at least an equal 
proportion of that exported to foreign countries properly ranks 
under the same head .'' 

[New- York Evening Post, Feb. 9.] 

The trade journals are again directing attention to the fact that 
a large proportion of wine sold in this country as foreign wine is 
produced in California, and sold in bottles labelled with imitation 


foreign labels. A Beaver-street wine-merchant said yesterday, in 
speaking of the matter, "The chief trouble is, that the middle- 
men, the wholesale wine-merchants, who buy from the wine-maker, 
and sell to the retailer, are interested in keeping up the deception ; 
because by means of it they are enabled to buy cheap, and sell 
dear. It is to their advantage to cry down American wines as 
inferior to foreign products ; and, when one tries to sell American 
wines for what they really are, he finds more opposition from the 
men who sell American wines under foreign names than from the 
few houses which really deal in foreign products. Every possible 
trick is resorted to for the purpose of disguising the fact that the 
wine sold is California wine. Even in San Francisco, where some 
local pride might be expected to help the sale of native wines, 
they are bottled, and sold largely with French labels, some being 
imitations of labels of celebrated houses, and others being more 
innocent of deception, because they do not steal trade-marks." 
Since the passage of an Act imposing a fine of five hundred dollars 
for selling wine with forged labels, the fraud is carried on more 
carefully ; and cases of bottles are sent by wine-merchants to retail 
dealers without labels, and the labels are sent separately, and are 
pasted on according to the demands of customers. One case of 
American wine can by this system make a label do service for 
half a dozen French brands. In nine cases out of ten, according 
to a letter recently published in the " Wine and Fruit Grower," 
what is sold as French wine in California is made there. The 
immense profit in deception is what keeps it up. The effect is 
detrimental to wine-makers, who do not reap any advantage from 
the increased consumption of their wines. I have seen in the 
bottling-rooms of California wine-merchants small mountains of 
bottles, out of which very few could be picked which were not 
ornamented with spurious labels. The manager of an establish- 
ment said to me, " These bottles come from all parts of the State. 


You see that they all have foreign labels, and doubtless their 
contents were sold as imported wine." Taking up a' bottle indis- 
criminately, I read such labels as " Cantenac Medoc, 1864, D. 
Misett, Bordeaux;" " Margaud Medoc, F. Keppler & Cie, Bor- 
deaux." A San Francisco bottle of Sauterne was branded on the 
cork, "Pouget Fils, Bordeaux." It was a genuine bottle, and had 
a San Francisco label of " Cantenac, Pouget Fils, Bordeaux." On 
a California-made bottle was a label of what purported to be Ger- 
man Hock. " Rouen Thaler, F. Weller & Co., Maenz," was stuck 
on a Fench Claret bottle. An imitation of a Chateau La Rose 
label could be bought in San Francisco at seven dollars a thousand. 
There might be read on a good many a facsimile of the " Due de 
Montebello." The label might be seen on a California bottle, and 
on another a label of an imaginary firm, " E. Blossiear & Cie, 

A dealer in nothing but California wines, who sells them as 
such, and is trying to educate the public taste to like it under its 
true name, said the California wine-blenders have themselves to 
thank for the present conditions of affairs. Instead of devoting 
themselves to making a pure wine, they attempted to try all kinds 
of devices to imitate European wines in color and flavor, and thus 
played directly into the hands of the importers. As to the fact 
that an enormous quantity of California wine is sold under foreign 
labels, there is no doubt of it whatever. Any wine-merchant will 
admit that not one-twentieth of the wine sold to consumers in 
this country in 1880 was sold as American. Four hundred and 
fifty thousand gallons were sold in one month to foreign importing 
houses in this city, — a hundred thousand gallons to a Spanish 
firm, who would deny point blank having any thing to do with such 
" stuff " as American wine. The only remedy is for wine-producers 
to establish their own agencies, and create a demand for native 


[American Wine and Grape Grower.] 


If there were needed any sufificient reason for Americans to 
look with favor upon the products of their own native vineyards, 
and with disfavor upon foreign wines, the fact that our wines are 
the pure juice of the grape, and foreign wines impure and sophis- 
ticated abominations, should furnish that reason. American wine- 
manufacture is a new art, but even at this early day our product 
has reached to one-half of our consumption. Last year we made 
six million gallons, and imported precisely the same quantity. Un- 
fortunately, so persistently prejudiced are the American people in 
favor of imported foreign products, that the greater part of the 
American-made wines are sold as choice foreign kinds, with false 
brands upon them. The bulk of the real foreign wines is vastly 
inferior. But " who hath believed our report " when we have 
reiterated time and again this fact .' And now we have some fresh 
evidence of the same sort, only, so to speak, "more so." It comes 
from foreign parts, and is imported direct from Paris, and should 
therefore be received at least with as much confidence as the 
French wines themselves. This report, taken from statistics of 
the Paris Municipal Laboratory, where the food analyses required 
by law are made, shows among other facts that in the month of 
June 455 samples of wine were examined; and of these but 14 
were found to be good, 123 were reported tolerable, and 318 bad. 
Of 455 samples, but 14 were good. If the French people thus 
treat themselves, what consideration might a foreigner expect, and 
how many samples of real imported wines (excluding the American 
sold for foreign) might be found to be even tolerable, and without 
any distinct shade of goodness at all ? 


[New- York Star, June 9, 1S83.] 

It appears that the consumption of wine in England has fallen 
off four and a half million gallons in seven years. In 1876 it 
amounted to eighteen and a half million gallons ; but last year it 
had dropped to fourteen million. The chief cause of this marked 
decline is said to be the deterioration of the wines in quality. 
They are doctored too much. The adulterations are not only 
deleterious, but patent and offensive. It has been said more than 
once in England, that it would be impossible to get pure Port 
wine, were a man to see it made at the vineyard, and shipped for 
home, riding all the way on the head of the cask. However that 
may be, the fact that many of the costly wines of England are 
badly adulterated is well known there and here ; while the cheap 
wines fare better, because it does not pay to adulterate them. It 
would be strange indeed if the adulteration of wines and liquors 
should stop their sale, and encourage temperance. But the facts 
look in that direction.